Recently I had the privilege of working on a very interesting project with a few folk from Mozilla – it’s the type of project I love to work on, as it involves web audio and its deep integration into the general web experience.
Web audio is no longer consigned to being the passive play and pause experience of yesteryear, it has the potential to be much more, it can be a driver of much richer interactions, something Henrik Moltke explores with something he dubs Hyper Audio. The remit of the project was to take various media elements of a radio interview broadcast by Danish Radio station DR; audio, subtitles, transcripts, footnotes etc and link these in an intuitive and useful manner.
To say this project was right up my street would be an understatement – this project was in my flat, raiding my fridge and drinking my beerz. I was already fascinated by the concept. I’d been playing about, creating audio related demos for a couple of years and in November last year I decided to attend the Mozilla Drumbeat festival and created a demo for the event. The demo was accepted to be exhibited at the science fair on the opening evening and garnered some interesting feedback both on and offline, what it effectively demonstrated was the synchronization and bi-directional control of text and audio.
When Henrik asked me to work on this project, I naturally jumped at the opportunity. Due to time differences, pressing deadlines and the luxury of having a nice quiet office, I stayed up late most nights for a week, happily hacking away and helped out and supported by various Mozillians and the popcorn.js community.
So that’s the back-story, here’s the demo.
Some things to try :
- Switch the audio from English to Danish – it should continue from the same point in Danish, subtitles and the transcript should also change appropriately.
- Try clicking on words in the transcript – the audio should start playing from the corresponding point.
- Highlight a passage of transcript text – this should add a tweetable excerpt to the ‘share’ box. The URL included should just play that part of the audio.
- Clicking the music note icons in the ‘media’ box should take you to the point of the audio where that resource was mentioned.
How did we achieve this? We used popcorn.js to display subtitles, footnotes and other time-related resources. In fact a lot of this was already in place when I picked up the project. I then integrated jPlayer for the audio playback and deeper interaction. Popcorn allows us to associate timings with actions and have these actions triggered by media when they hit said timings. So pretty much perfect for our needs. jPlayer provided a solid abstraction above the native audio API, it allowed me to easily synchronize and switch audio tracks and jump to specific points or sections in the audio, with very few lines of code. Importantly it also protected us from any cross-browser issues and allowed our designers to effortlessly create a custom skin for the player.
So this was the control, but what about the media? Well this part was a massive team effort. Henrik managed to provide a very accurately timed transcript. We had hoped to use the subtitles in SRT format but for convenience we parsed them or rather Scott Downe parsed them into JSON format.
One of the bigger issues we encountered was that we only had the transcript in English and the timings for the Danish transcript were naturally different. Luckily we had accurately timed Danish subtitles and legendary Bobby Richter on hand to convert the subtitles to individual words complete with their timings, which he did by cunningly interpolating the timing of words (based on word length) and based on their in-subtitle position. All knocked out in about 10 minutes and in 20 lines of code. It worked surprisingly well, of course you need to be able to understand Danish to truly tell. We could have probably parsed the subtitles into the transcript on the fly but due to time limitations we made them static.
Perhaps an aside not directly related to audio, I managed to hack together some code that allowed highlighted transcript text to be placed in the ‘share’ box, and grab the timings of the first and last words, from there it was pretty much straightforward to make this excerpt tweetable.
This whole endeavor was very much a group effort, a huge thanks to the popcorn.js team, who made joining their IRC feel like walking into a pub full of friends.
Special credit and thanks then should go to Scott Downe, Bobby Richter, Barry Threw, David Humphrey, Brett Gaylor, Ben Moskowitz, Christian Valentiner, Silvia Benvenuti and of course Henrik ‘Tank’ Moltke whose baby all this was. It was great being part of such a talented team. Awesomesauce indeed.
The old client-server web model is out of date, it’s on its last legs, it will eventually die. We need to move on, we need to start thinking differently if we are going to create web applications that are robust, independent and fast enough for tomorrow’s generation. We need to decentralise and move to a new distributed architecture. At least that’s the idea that I am exploring in this post.
It seems to me that a distributed architecture is desirable for many reasons. As things stand, many web apps rely on other web apps to do their thing, and this is not necessarily as good a thing as we might first imagine. The main issue being single points of failure (SPOF). Many developers create (and are encouraged by the current web model to create) applications with many points of failure, without fallbacks. Take the Google CDN for jQuery for example – no matter how improbable, you take this down and half the web’s apps stop functioning. Google.com is probably the biggest single point of failure the world of software has ever known. Not good! Many developers think that if they can’t rely on Google, then who can they rely on? The point is that they should not rely on any single service, and the more single points you rely on, the worse it gets! It’s almost like we have forgotten the principles behind (and the redundancy built into) the Internet – a network based on the nuclear-war-tolerant ARPANET.
I believe it’s time to start looking at a new more robust, decentralised and distributed web model, and I think peer-to-peer (P2P) is a big part of that. Many clients, doubling as servers should be able to deliver the robustness we require, specifically SPOFs would be eliminated. Imagine Wikileaks as a P2P app – if we eliminate the single central server URL mode and something happens to wikileaks.com, the web app continues to function regardless. It’s no coincidence that Wikileaks chose to distribute documents on bittorrent. Another benefit of a distributed architecture is that it scales better, we already know this of course – it’s one of the benefits of client-side code. Imagine Twitter as a P2P web app, imagine how much easier it could scale with the bulk of processing distributed amongst its clients. I think we could all benefit hugely from a comprehensive web based P2P standard, essentially this boils down to browser-built-in web servers using an established form of inter-browser communication.
So let’s go through a quick example – let’s take Twitter again, how would this all work? Say we visit a twitter.com that detects our P2P capabilities and redirects to p2p.twitter.com, after the page has loaded we download the SSJS and start running it on our local server. We may also grab some information about which other peers are running Twitter. Assuming the P2P is done right, almost immediately we are independent of twitter.com, we’ve got rid of our SPOF. \o/ At the same time if we choose to run offline we have enough data and logic to be able to do all the things we would usually do, bar transmit and receive. Significantly load on twitter.com could be greatly reduced by running both server-side and client-side code locally. To P2P browsers, twitter.com would become little more than a tracker or a source of updates. Also let’s not forget, things run faster locally
Admittedly the difference between server-side and client-side JS does become a little blurred at this point. But as an intermediary measure at least, it could be useful to maintain this distinction as it would provide a migration path for web apps to take. For older browsers you can still rely on the single server method while providing for P2P browsers. Another interesting beneficial side-effect is that perhaps we can bring the power of ‘view-source’ to server-side code. If you can download it you can surely view it.
The thing that I am most unsure about is what role HTTP plays in all this. It might be best to take an evolutionary approach to such a revolutionary change. We could continue to use HTTP to communicate between clients and servers, allowing the many benefits of a RESTful architecture, restricting the use of a more efficient TCP based comms to required real-time ‘push’ aspects of applications.
It seems to me that with initiatives such as Opera Unite (where P2P and a web server are already being built into the browser) and other browser makers looking to do the same, this is the direction in which web apps are heading. There are too many advantages to ignore: robustness, speed, scalability – these are very desirable things.
I guess what is needed now is some deep and rigorous discussion and if considered feasible, standards to be adopted so all browsers can move forward with a common approach for implementation. Security will obviously feature highly as part of these discussions and so will common library re-use on the client.
If web apps are going to compete with native apps, it seems that they need to be able to do everything native apps do and that includes P2P communication and enhanced offline capability, it just so happens that these two important aspects seem to be linked. Once suitable mechanisms and standards are in place, the fact that you can write web applications that are equivalent or even superior to native apps, using one common approach for all platforms, is likely to be the killer differentiator.
Further reading : Freedom In the Cloud: Software Freedom, Privacy, and Security for Web 2.0 and Cloud Computing, The Foundation for P2P Alternatives, Social Networking in the cloud – Diaspora to challenge facebook, The P2P Web (part one)
- The Hyperaudio Pad – Next Steps and Media Literacy
- Breaking Out – The Making Of
- Breaking Out – Web Audio and Perceptive Media
- Altrepreneurial vs Entrepreneurial and Why I am going to Work with Al Jazeera
- HTML5 Audio APIs – How Low can we Go?
- Hyperaudio at the Mozilla Festival
- The Hyperaudio Pad – a Software Product Proposal
- Introducing the Hyperaudio Pad (working title)
- Accessibility, Community and Simplicity
- Build First, Ask Questions Later
- Further Experimentation with Hyper Audio
- Hyper Audio – A New Way to Interact
- P2P Web Apps – Brace yourselves, everything is about to change
- A few HTML5 questions that need answering
- Drumbeat Demo – HTML5 Audio Text Sync
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